For safe, non-toxic carpet, both natural and synthetic fiber options can be a healthy choice.
The post outlines my top picks in the zero and low-VOC (volatile organic compounds) categories for residential and commercial use. This includes a look at the carpet fiber, backing, products used during installation, and padding (underlay).
Even folks who are chemically sensitive can do well with carpet in the home.
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The Ideal Carpet Does not Contain:
- Flame retardants – the most harmful types are usually found in polyurethane padding or felt backing, but aluminum hydroxide can be added to the fibers. Antimony is a found in some flame retardants used in carpet. (A small amount of Antimony can also be found as part of some polyester fabric fabrication methods).
- Permethrin pesticide mothproofing which is added to many wool carpets.
- Antimicrobials which can be added to the backing, the glues, and the face fiber. Pyrithione zinc and/or potassium oleate is often used in the fiber.
- Stain repellent like Scotchguard (perfluorobutanesulfonic acid) and other PFAS which are often added to the textile top layer. PFAS (Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) aka “forever chemicals” are a priority to avoid in my opinion.
- Anti-static treatment like quaternary ammonia which can be added to the fibers.
- SBR (Styrene-Butadiene rubber) is at the base of the fibers in conventional carpet.
- Padding offgassing – rebounded polyurethane, memory foam, and rubber, all offgas.
- Phthalates – usually found in vinyl/PVC backings.
- Fly Ash – which can be added to backings, and can contain mercury, lead and arsenic.
- Toxic metal stabilizers like lead and cadmium.
- Toxic adhesives which can be required for glue-down installation or at the seams.
- VOCs – a number of chemical additives are a part of conventional carpet – from the dyes and processing of the fibers to the topical fiber treatments, backing glues, backing materials, carpet padding, and installation tapes and glues.
What to Look for in a Carpet:
- A fiber that is not treated with toxic chemical treatments – wool and other organic fibers like sisal and jute are the best option.
- Undyed wool without pesticides is in theory the purest option, but it does have a strong natural odor from the natural wool oils.
- Natural latex is usually touted as the safe adhesive between the fibers and the backing. I have reservations about natural latex which are outlined in this post on mattresses, and I’m not sure if the same precautions need to be taken with carpet. I personally have a preference for backing without natural latex.
- PET and PTT two types of polyester are also a safer fiber (in terms of offgassing) and some are free of PFAS “forever chemicals”.
- Zero-VOC is ideal!
- Certifications? … are not useful in this situation. Green Lable Plus, a certification created by the carpet industry, has an upper limit of offgassing that it appears that all carpet in North America can meet. Greenguard is very rarely used to certify carpets.
Wool carpet is a natural choice that can be untreated and undyed. It does not contain flame retardants and the best brands would not use topical treatments.
The backing will be a natural latex in most cases.
1. Earth Weave
Earthweave makes a wool carpet, with no mothproofing and no other treatments. It does contain latex. I always prefer the undyed wool option for the extremely sensitive. This is one of the top brands.
Another great brand, Nature’s carpet is also made of wool. The Dark Green line does not have mothproofing and uses undyed wool. The backing contains natural latex and jute.
The Medium Green line and Light Green line contain permethrin mothproofing. The Medium Green has jute, and synthetic backing adhesive. The Light Green has synthetic backing adhesive and synthetic backing (not jute).
I have sniffed Hibernia and it does have a wooly smell (as you would expect), but not a chemical smell. The company changed ownership in 2018. They do use mothproofing (typically permethrin is used on wool carpets).
Home Depot wool carpet – I tried the Natural Harmony brand Glacial wool/polyester blend and it did have a slight classic carpet chemical odor.
Seagrass & Jute Carpet
I really like seagrass carpet because of how it feels underfoot. The DMI brand makes one I like that is not dyed or treated with insecticides or other chemicals. It does contain natural latex.
There are also companies that make wall-to-wall sisal carpet. Sisal is stronger and more durable than jute (and not as soft), but looks similar.
You should ask about pesticides sprayed during transport. Topical treatments are not usually used but you could ask.
Most of the no or extremely low-VOC carpets are made from polyester (PET or PTT). There are a few polyester carpets that are too high in offgassing for me. I list out the ones I have found are the best.
In general, your typical nylon carpet (which is the most common carpet textile) is too high in offgassing for a healthy home in my opinion.
1. Home Fresh by Empire Today
My top pick for synthetic carpet (PET polyester), Homefresh carpet contains charcoal which absorbs some VOCs and was extremely low in odor and VOCs/offgassing. I can see how it is officially 0-VOC.
It has a built-in felt backing, which seemed benign to me. The felt is synthetic (polyester).
The carpet is free of PFAS and Scotchgard, says a rep in an email conversation. Though one reader said the samples had a Scotchgard sticker on them in 2023.
I got a sample that was a few months old, but it has stayed bagged up, and I did not pick up classic carpet offgassing at all. Though it is not 100% odorless to the most extremely sensitive, it is very close. If you don’t have an extreme sense of smell you may very well find this odorless.
I was actually quite surprised as I have sniffed many carpets. It’s available in the US (not Canada). For $350 off try this discount link.
It is installed by tack down or glue down methods, the company says in an email.
2. Air.o by Mohawk
This carpet is similar to Home Fresh and I’m happy to see another great contender in the synthetic category.
The carpet fibers are made from 100% PET (polyester), just like Home Fresh. It has a very similar felt padding which is far superior health-wise to typical polyurethane or rubber.
They claim it has no odor and is zero-VOC, and I would say it is very close to odorless.
It is treated with what they call “Fresh Carpet Technology” an odor-neutralizing treatment of zeolite, similar to Home Fresh‘s charcoal.
Sellers list it as containing Scotchgard treatment and in 2018 Air.o did test positive for PFAS in the face fiber and positive for bromine (a component of flame retardant) in the backing. Antimony was also detected, which could be part of the flame retardants or residuals from polyester production. But as of Oct 1, 2019, no Mohawk soft surface products contain PFAS, says the company in the email. Some samples at stores still have the Scotchgard sticker on them but the carpet itself no longer contains Scotchgard says the company. (The company and stores are still producing conflicting info on this as of July 2023).
Unlike conventional carpet, these two brands do not require melting a glue on the seams nor glue underneath. Air.o is installed with double-sided tape that they provide.
FLOR makes carpet tiles that can be arranged as rugs or as wall-to-wall carpet.
Their regular carpet lines are made from nylon (polyamide), and most have a vinyl backing. Some have a bitumen backing which I found lower in offgassing than the vinyl.
FLOR has a different type of offgassing chemical odor than typical carpet, and I definitely find it offgasses faster that regular carpet. And that is the reason for listing this brand. I like that you can air out the carpet tiles before installation as well.
All of their carpets are free of PFAS (aka “forever chemicals”) or any topical stain guard treatment. For flame resistance, they use mineral fillers like unrefined aluminum ore (bauxite) and calcium carbonate (limestone) in the layer below the yarn.
The Fedora is a specialty line made from recycled plastic (PET) and is very low VOC, it was far lower in that telltale carpet chemical smell than their usual nylon lines. It offgassed to “odorless” much faster as well.
This Fedora line does not look like it would hold up as well as other types, though some might prefer this carpet because of how fast it offgasses.
You will need to test their sticky tape “dots” that attach these tiles to each other. The backing of the tiles is a plastic layer (vinyl or bitumen) and they do not require glue or tacking down to the subfloor to stay in place (just the dots which stick to each other).
4. Mohawk SmartStrand
Another type of polyester carpet, SmartStrand is PTT (Triexta) instead of PET. Polyester carpets are consistently lower in offgassing since they are treated with fewer chemicals. I would say this one is extremely low VOC.
Assuming the samples were fairly new (which was not as clear in this case as it was with the other brands above), this is lower in offgassing than FLOR.
Air.o and HomeFresh both seemed better to me. This one had a very faint regular carpet chemical odor.
Since polyester is inherently more stain-resistant, there also seem to be fewer (or less harmful) stain-resistant coatings used on it. Their stain-resistant Nanoloc is described as a “spill-resistant shield made from nanoparticles”. It’s not clear what that actually is. It does not have Scotchguard and they are claiming no topical stain guard treatments which can wash out (and they have said no PFAS are used in an email).
It is OEKO-TEX 100.
Other Mohawk Carpet Lines
Mohawk EverStrand is also made of polyester (PET), it was extremely similar to SmartStrand to me. EverStrand does have Scotchguard.
On the other hand, Mohawk EnviroStrand was not as good in terms of offgassing, it was more like a conventional carpet odor in my experience, despite also being solution-dyed PET. However, it did test free of metals like lead and antimony. (Though positive for PFAS in 2018. Should be free of PFAS since 2019).
Mohawk Street Thread is a more conventional nylon carpet (with the usual offgassing) but their Duracolor stain-resistant technology did test free of PFAS in a 2018 test by the Ecology Center which is no longer available online.
Shaw Brand 100% High-Performance PET. Shaw is a competitor to Mohawk. They also have PET carpets. I got samples of their Bellera PET line. Based on the samples I got of both brands I would say that I picked up a more noticeable new carpet odor off of the Shaw PET. I personally wouldn’t use this one myself. (I am not affiliated with either brand and there is one big factor that I can’t hold steady and that is the age of the samples).
5. Engineered Floors DreamWeaver PureColor
The company Engineered Floors makes a solution-dyed polyester carpet that is free of PFAS. That is a chemical of high concern and it’s great to see companies eliminating this.
I am waiting to see samples of this product.
Other Carpet Brands Free of PFAS:
All of Home Depot and Lowes carpets and rugs are free of PFAS/PFCs. I would suggest getting samples of the polyester options by Home Decorators Collection, Lifeproof, Traffic Master (olefin fiber), Mohawk, and Stainmaster.
I tested all the polyesters/Triexta carpets from Home Depot. In my estimation, the Lifeproof lines including Petproof were lower odor than Traffic Master brand, but not as good as Mohawk SmartStrand, Envirostrand, and Air.o or HomeFresh.
My top choice from Home Depot is the Lifeproof Triexta with the Lifeproof polyethylene cushion option.
Some Lines by Shaw, Tarkett, and Bentley as outlined here are free of antimicrobials, flame retardant chemicals, fly ash, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane, synthetic styrene-butadiene latex as well as PFCs.
Interface Carpet is free of PFAS and PFCs.
Staton Carpet LION indoor/outdoor nylon was low in odor & offgassing – definitely quite good for a nylon carpet. The company said in an email they are free of PFAS/PFCs.
6. Inexpensive Polyester Carpet
The Ribbed Carpet Tile from Flooringinc, also was odorless to me, based on the sample I received. It’s very thin with almost no backing and might not be the most durable of options but it is simple and cheap.
It’s a peel and stick and the adhesive part of the sticker was shockingly low in odor.
I also got samples of their Impressions Carpet Tiles, and the Ribbed Smoke Grey Indoor/Outdoor Area Rug, but is was more difficult to judge those as they arrived smelling like rubber from their nearby rubber stock.
If you have conventional carpet in your house that is still offgassing, reduce the VOCs by sealing them in with AFM Carpet Seal. It reduces offgassing by 60-80%.
Commercial Grade Carpets
It is a lot harder to find low-VOC commercial carpet. I have reviewed and sniffed a few of the ones that claim the lowest VOC levels.
FLOR: Most of their carpets are commercial grade. They claimed they have the lowest VOC levels in the industry in 2017, though in my comparison with the other types above, I do not believe that was true.
However, in the conventional nylon carpet category, this very well might be the case.
They have Green Label Plus which every carpet can probably attain now and is not a low level of VOC in my opinion. It doesn’t help to distinguish between brands if all of them can reach this certification. This certification was made by the carpet industry.
However, when testing their carpet it did not have that tell-tale new carpet smell.
The initial offgassing was as strong as other regular brands but it seemed less offensive (I know everyone is different here). But, what did impress me was that the sample offgassed way faster than other brands that have the tell-tale new carpet smell. A few weeks outside and it is fairly tolerable for a conventional carpet.
Forbo makes this interesting product called Flotex. It’s a mix between a carpet and a vinyl sheet flooring.
The fibers are very very short, which you can see in my video on carpets.
From a distance, it looks like carpet, but up close it seems like a slighly hairy floor.
The ease of cleaning would be a huge upside with this flooring. For those with allergies who don’t feel they can get regular carpet clean enough, this would be a better choice. It’s also a good flooring for home gyms.
There is some offgassing in this flooring, but it’s minor compared to many carpets, mostly it seems from the backing.
You can buy Flotex at Green Design Center.
Wool can also be a good option for commercial spaces. Though commercial companies are more reluctant to use wool because of the price.
Godfrey Hirst wool commercial carpets showed test results with very low VOC levels. Though they did have that classic carpet smell, and it does contain mothproofing (permethrin). They have a full Declare Lable here.
Woolshire wool is also rated for commercial use, I found it much more tolerable than Godfrey – it smells wooly but not like chemicals. It does have moth-proofing in it. It smells similar to Hibernia brand.
Some of Earth Weave’s lines can be used in light commercial applications and those do not contain mothproofing or other chemical treatments. In a light commercial setting, this is the “greenest” way to go.
If I was choosing carpet for a commercial space I would consider Earth Weave first, then Woolshire, and then FLOR.
Can Carpet ever be a Healthy Flooring?
Because carpet does collect dust, mold spores, pesticides, flame retardants and all types of contaminants and allergens that ride on dust, a HEPA vacuum like the Nilfisk is essential for cleaning.
Mohawk has done some live demonstrations on how it’s very easy to vacuum the Air.o carpet. The fiber pile is high though, which is not the best type for those with allergies.
The FLOR tiles can be taken apart and even washed in the bathtub or outside. While Forbo’s Flotex can take a lot of scrubbing since the fibers are extremely short.
Chemicals used in the Installation of Carpet
Conventional carpet is either glued down or tacked down. The seams are melted together.
Wool Carpet Installation
Nature’s wool carpet is installed very similarly to a conventional carpet. It is stretched onto a tack strip. Seaming tape (standard latex) is used on the back and melted together.
The wool felt padding can be either glued or stapled down to the floor first.
On a concrete floor (basement, slab, or upper-level concrete) the company suggests attaching it as usual. They don’t recommend a plastic vapor barrier underneath.
I would not put wool carpet on a slab or basement floor. But I would put this on an upper-level concrete floor that has completely dried and does not have moisture coming up from a lower level.
They have the same installation instructions for their jute and plastic-backed versions.
Some brands of wool carpet can also be glued down.
Air.o Carpet Installation
Air.o is installed with double-sided tape, not melting of the seams. You can also glue this down. Mohawk sells the tape or glue for this installation. Not using their tape or glue would void the warranty.
I’m assuming Homefresh is also installed with double-sided tape, though this company is impossible to communicate with unless you do an in-person estimate.
Carpet Tile Installation
FLOR tiles are installed with tape onto the backing – they are taped to each other. It is not also taped down to the floor underneath/subfloor. It stays in place with traction.
The tape has the same odor as clear packing tape, but is well blocked by the vinyl backing. I review this in my carpet video.
Flocked Flooring Installation
Flotex is installed only with a glue-down system. See Forbo’s branded glues and recommendations.
Carpets with a conventional synthetic backing can be glued down with AFM 3 in 1, a non-toxic carpet glue.
Non-Toxic Carpet Pad/Underlay
Padding (Underlay) for Wool Carpet
Nature’s Carpet sells a (wool) felt padding. No chemical treatments.
Do not use rebond pad (bonded urethane) with jute backed carpet, as it’s incompatible.
Two other options apart from wool felt is a synthetic felt pad or a rubber pad.
For any Carpet type that requires padding
Synthetic rubber is recommended by Green Building Supply. This virgin rubber does have a slight odor. How long this takes to dissipate depends on the product and how sensitive the person is. I would test a new sample of this. The antimicrobial here is quaternary silsesquioxane.
Air.o and Homefresh have a built-in felt padding. No additional padding is needed/recommended.
FLOR tiles have a vinyl or bitumen backing. No additional padding is required or recommended.
Polyethylene carpet pad is zero-VOC, it’s certainly preferable to the usual polyurethane carpet padding. Lifeproof from Home Depot also has a polyethylene option, this is a foam and it can go under most carpets. That is a fantastic option.
EVA foam carpet pad – is not 100% odorless but is a low odor, low VOC foam that is preferable to polyurethane.
Felt padding can be purchased through some big companies and can be used under many synthetic carpets. This is often a mixed plastic that is recycled content. The one I linked to does not have an added antimicrobial.
I avoid memory foam carpet pad, rebonded polyurethane and most SBR rubber (especially the very dense kind). I would also avoid regular (solid, not rebonded) polyurethane if possible or if you are highly sensitive. It could be just fine for some people.
Under rugs, you can use a natural latex rug gripper
Where can you Install Carpet?
Over a Concrete Slab
Air.o carpet with a felt backing claims you can install it in a basement and that it’s very resistant to moisture. I don’t see how a felt backing can be very resistant to moisture and I would not install this over a slab or concrete basement floor myself.
Nature’s carpet, made of wool, also claims that it can be installed over concrete without a vapor barrier because it’s breathable. I would not install this over concrete, certainly not the ones with jute and or natural latex backing. A wool carpet with a synthetic backing will fare far better over concrete, in my experience.
FLOR carpet tiles have a vinyl backing (or Bitumen in some cases). The vinyl is a vapor barrier. If you are OK with installing a vapor barrier over your concrete slab or basement then this is an acceptable installation. I prefer not to block moisture in a slab/basement since it’s always trying to dry to the inside. I have seen a vapor barrier over a concrete slab become a mold risk in most homes.
On an Upper-Level Wood Subfloor
Carpet of any kind installed over a wood subfloor is much easier and is much less of a concern.
If you are installing carpet on a first floor with a humid unconditioned basement below, then you should be careful because moisture is making its way up.
FlOR and wool carpets can be installed as rugs and not as wall-to-wall carpet.
See my post on non-toxic area rugs for the full list of options for area rugs.
Corinne Segura is a Building Biologist Practitioner with 8 years of experience helping others create healthy homes.
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