Updated August, 2023
There are many choices for non-toxic flooring suitable for the chemically sensitive or health-conscious homeowner.
The absolute best options are real hardwood, polished concrete, and tile. However, specific brands of natural linoleum, carpet, and engineered wood are excellent choices as well.
I will look at a few options that are still non-toxic, but not quite as toxin-free, like luxury vinyl plank, laminate, cork, and bamboo.
This post covers green non-toxic flooring divided into three categories, starting with the purest options:
1. The Greenest Options (Dark Green)
2. Medium Green
3. Light Green
I recommend all of the products here, some products have affiliate programs and some do not. Upon purchase, I earn a small commission through affiliate links at no extra cost to you.
1. Greenest Floors “Dark Green” (Zero-VOC, No Offgassing)
i. Natural Solid Hardwood
Natural wood flooring is usually my number one choice. It’s one of the purest and safest options. A few caveats for those extremely sensitive:
Wood contains natural terpenes that are safe (and even beneficial) for healthy folks, but do bother some extremely sensitive people. Aromatic woods like pine have higher natural volatile compounds than maple, as an example.
Flooring can contain anti-sapstain chemicals, which could explain why a few people react to wood used in building and not wood in the forest. Not all of these treatments are harmful.
Wood also has a higher possibility of harboring mold than less porous materials. To prevent mold you should make sure your wood has been kiln-dried and kept dry at the store and onsite. In normal conditions, this is not an issue.
There are many green, zero-VOC options for finishing wood. I used a natural penetrating oil on my floors, a purest option. Tung Oil and linseed oil are two natural oil finish options.
If you want a synthetic finish, AFM Poly BP is a great non-toxic option.
Wood Floor Glues
You can buy solid unfinished hardwood flooring from specialty flooring stores, as well as Home Depot, Lowes and LL Flooring. LL Flooring is usually going to have the lowest price.
These big-box stores have networks of installers.
Usually finished with aluminum oxide infused polyurethane and cured under UV lights, these are typically very well tolerated by chemically sensitive folks once cured. It is zero-VOC.
This finish has a few benefits, not having to finish it in-house, it’s super durable and will last a long time, and the finish partially blocks the wood odor.
Almost all brands of prefinished hardwood are of the same composition. It would likely send you in circles if I mention brands – you want to start with what’s available in your area.
You will find that almost every brand has a UV-cured water-based polyurethane finish (with aluminum oxide).
Installation of Hardwood
Nail-down installation is less toxic than glue-down. You may need a small amount of glue on some pieces, or you may be able to face nail.
Best practice for wide planks is to glue and nail. Consider the width of the planks at the planning stage.
ii. Polished Concrete
If polished concrete flooring makes you think IKEA warehouse, think again, polished concrete can look beautiful and be green and healthy.
Most polished concrete systems use sodium silicate or potassium silicate which are very safe and benign. Polished concrete is vapor breathable which makes it one of the best flooring types, alongside tile, over a concrete slab. A topcoat of urethane is usually added.
You can do acid stains, add natural pigments, use white cement, or add white sand to Portland Cement to get many different unique and modern looks.
Other concrete sealers
Concrete can also be sealed with topical acrylic or polyurethane sealers, penetrating sealers, or epoxies.
Epoxy is a two-part sealer, where each part, in theory, comes to a complete chemical reaction with the other. In reality, it’s not that neat. It’s likely to offgas even if it claims zero-VOC.
Eventually, it should come to a complete cure.
For a complete review of concrete stains, sealers, and paints, see my dedicated post on this topic.
Types of Non-Toxic Tiles:
Marble tile is good in theory. Most of it has a resin put on it at the factory to fill in tiny holes and fissures, and it might have a (chemical) sealant on it as well.
The resin seems to cure fully and be fine for most people. Honed stones can be sealed at home.
A pure slab, or tile, that does not have a glossy finish can be sealed with a natural sealer (I tested them here) or low toxin sealer (I tested those here). Keep in mind that white marble is the most difficult stone to seal in a non-toxic way.
Slate is also good, you can find it unsealed. Though like with marble, a resin is used to fill lines and pits.
Concrete tiles have beautiful designs. You may want to ask what additives are in the concrete and test them out for tolerability. I sealed my concrete tiles with AFM Penetrating Water Stop. You can also use the sealers in the concrete post.
Other natural stones like limestone, travertine, and soapstone are great options for green healthy floors. Highly sensitive folks may want yo check if a resin or sealer is already applied, and then check to see which natural sealers will work over the stone of your choosing. Honed stones (i.e. not glossy) are the easiest to seal with a natural pure option. Very dense stones like many granite types and some slate do not require a sealer at all (bonus).
Tile Sealers: Green companies now make walnut oil and hemp oil that can be used on natural stone and concrete. I have tested the natural oils on slate, light-colored marble and dark-colored marble. Walnut oil is the preferred oil for most indoor stones, as hemp can turn the color, and tung is too thick.
Ceramic/Porcelain tiles have a high incidence of lead in the glaze. Ask for lead test results from the company and do a simple 3M Lead Swab (those are useful on a number of household items, and they are affordable). But to pick up lower levels of lead, you need to hire someone who has an XRF tool. Daltile and a few other companies listed here make claims of no lead (other than in red glaze for Daltile).
Lead in Tiles: All ceramic/porcelain tiles should be tested for lead. I tested tiles sold in the US from big well-known stores and smaller online retailers that tested positive for high levels of lead. It would be wise to test any glazed tile regardless of origin. More on how to test them and precautions you can take with the dust here.
Once you have ruled out lead, ceramic and porcelain tiles are inert and safe. Plus, you don’t have to seal them. My post on grout and thinset looks closely at the other materials used in the installation.
Wood-look porcelain tiles are zero-VOC even though there is a printed image on them. The glaze seems to block this. I do not detect anything that is different from regular tiles.
Glass tiles are inert, but most types are too slippery to use on the floor. They can be used on a backsplash.
Air Cleaning Tiles
Some tiles claim to clean the air. This process uses photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) to clean the air by using a layer of non-toxic titanium dioxide in the tile glaze.
This reacts with UV light, and just like the PCO air purifiers I reviewed, creates a reaction that can break down some bacteria, molds, VOCs, and viruses.
I don’t know how impactful this tile coating will be to the overall air quality in a room, especially a bathroom, which may not get much UV light (if at all).
This technology is also used on wood floors.
2. Medium Green (Zero to Low-VOC)
i. Natural Linoleum
Marmoleum, the only residential natural linoleum currently available in North America, is made from linseed oil, binders, wood flour, limestone, and dry pigments. They are mixed and then calendared onto a backing. It’s got a UV-cured sealer on top.
I found that after one month the linseed odor all but disappeared from the Marmoleum product – though many people say the odor never disappears 100%. I am using this in my trailer. I was surprised and impressed since I don’t normally do well with linseed.
Three Types of Marmoleum
- The roll down flooring that is the most typical kind (the sheet) has a jute backing and is glue down.
- The modular tiles are also glue down, they have a polyester backing (not jute, and not fiberglass as some websites say) and are slightly more rigid.
- The “click” is the same sheet (roll down material) mounted onto a substrate of High Density Fiberboard (HDF) and cork. The HDF is formaldehyde-free. Though the binder is not disclosed. The click together has the advantage of not needing glue.
You can use the sheets in wet areas like kitchens and bathrooms if it’s properly installed, more details on that in the bathroom flooring post.
ii. Engineered Wood
Most brands of engineered wood floors now are zero-VOC or close to it, even if they are not marketed that way. They do have a little bit of glue in the substrate so the extremely sensitive would need to test it.
What to Look for
- A plywood or solid slat core
- A stain/varnish that is zero-VOC
Plywood cores have glue, often formaldehyde. But by the time this product gets to you, it technically is considered cured. It’s only the extremely sensitive who should make sure this is good enough for you by testing it.
Some brands have solid slats as the base, which has very little offgassing because there is less glue. There is more detail in my post on engineered wood flooring.
There are a few brands that use an HDF fibreboard base (which offgasses a lot more!) so check to see what the substrate is.
(The hybrid type described below has a PVC base.)
Most finishes on engineered wood have no offgassing or close to it. I look for water-based UV-cured polyurethane (or polyacrylic). This usually has aluminum oxide in it and it is very close to zero-VOC.
There are also zero-VOC or close to zero-VOC oil-based finishes which are often UV cured. The UV curing speeds up the offgassing so that it is much faster than it would be if you applied it yourself. The chemically sensitive should test this and test the maintenance oils needed.
Sometimes the stain has a bit of a VOC odor, but you will only know by getting samples yourself since all brands could qualify for the strictest certifications.
Kahrs shares their test results.
There are many brands that are good, these are just a few examples. The engineered wood flooring post has more options.
- Tesoro Coastal Lowlands – White Oak, Hickory, Maple, Walnut (plywood base)
- Cali Floors Meritage – Oak (plywood base)
- Shaw Castlewood – Hickory (plywood base)
- Shaw Albright – Oak (plywood base)
- Tesoro Great Southern Woods (solid slat base)
A category of engineered wood that is actually a vinyl/wood hybrid has real wood on the top layer and vinyl-limestone composite as the base layer.
In most situations, engineered wood with a plywood or solid slab substrate is preferable. But there are reasons to use the hybrid.
This eliminates that pine/spruce/fir odor in engineered wood and also doesn’t have a discernible PVC odor offgassing to most people. It’s also waterproof. In many ways, it’s the best of both worlds.
It’s one of my top picks for a trailer or RV. (More trailer flooring options here).
1. Cali Floors Geowood is one I really liked. It is very tolerable, and for those sensitive to wood, this limestone/PVC substrate (SPC) may be preferable to a plywood base. (Plywood will have that odor of pine/spruce/fir and is made with some formaldehyde.)
It is formaldehyde-free, confirmed by Green Design Center. It’s also phthalate-free.
2. Another similar wood/vinyl hybrid is Opti-Wood. You can find this at Home Depot (in Canada and the US). It’s well priced, and I did not pick up offgassing in the top layer in the samples I bought. The wood layer eliminates the higher offgassing top layer of vinyl in LVP and it should prevent a lot of the leaching of plasticizers.
3. Raintree is a brand that has a high-quality wood top layer, with some higher-end looks. I have some samples, and like the other brands, the wood layer is very thin. From a distance, it’s hard to tell if these are real wood but underfoot, you can tell it definitely feels like real wood not plastic.
iii. Healthy Carpet
For safe, non-toxic carpet, both natural fibers and synthetics can be healthy.
If you are interested in carpet, I have a whole post dedicated to this topic that goes into detail on brands, chemical treatments, and how the installation affects toxicity.
(I have a separate post devoted to non-toxic area rugs).
Non-Toxic Natural Fiber Carpet
1. Earth Weave – wool, no mothproofing, no other treatments, does contain latex. I always prefer undyed wool for the very sensitive.
2. Nature’s Carpet – wool, contains natural latex adhesive. The “dark green” line does not have mothproofing and uses undyed wool. The medium green line does not contain natural latex, which for me is a big plus, but it does contain mothproofing.
3. Seagrass – I really like seagrass carpet because of how it feels underfoot. The DMI brand makes one I like that is not dyed or treated with insecticides or other chemicals. It does contain natural latex.
Non-Toxic Synthetic Carpet
1. Home Fresh – One of my top picks for synthetic carpet (PET polyester) with a felt backing. It was extremely low in odor and is 0-VOC. It does contain Scotchguard. This refer a friend program will get you $350 off.
2. Air.o by Mohawk – My other top pick for synthetic, this carpet is very similar to Homefresh. The carpet fibers are made from 100% PET (polyester). They claim it has no odor and is zero-VOC. It is free of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS).
It has a similar felt padding which is far superior health-wise to typical polyurethane.
3. FLOR – makes carpet tiles which can be arranged as rugs or wall-to-wall carpeting.
Their regular nylon lines have a different type of offgassing odor than typical carpet, not necessarily less strong, but it did offgas faster.
The Fedora line is made from recycled plastic (PET) and is very low VOC, it quickly approached odorless, in my opinion.
Commercial Grade Carpets
Low-VOC commercial carpet is harder to find than residential. I have reviewed and sniffed a few of the ones that claim to have the lowest VOC levels.
There are wool and synthetic commercial options reviewed in my dedicated carpet post.
Can Carpet Ever Be a Healthy Flooring?
Because carpet does collect dust, mold spores, pesticides, flame retardants and all types of contaminants and allergens that ride on dust, a HEPA vacuum like the Nilfisk is essential for cleaning.
Terrazzo is a little complex as there are different materials, resins and sealers involved. But there are systems that are zero-VOC and low-VOC.
The concrete post looks at this a little more.
v. Non-PVC Polypropylene Flooring
The vast majority of rigid core click-together plastic flooring is luxury vinyl plank (LVP) which is PVC based. (More on LVP in the last section of this article).
Sono Eclipse is a PVC-free rigid core flooring made in Germany. It is made without phthalates or other plasticizers. That is huge, as plasticizers are the biggest chemical of concern in LVP floors.
They also claim it’s made without chlorine or other additives. The core is made of polypropylene (PP) and mineral powder. Like LVP, it is waterproof. I’ve seen a sample and it looks like feels almost exactly like LVP.
Another company Hallmark Floors, makes a rigid glue-down plank made of polypropylene. I could not pick up any offgassing, and like other PP floors, it does not have any added plasticizer or chlorine and it does not contain recycled content.
vi. Zero-VOC Resilient Flooring
Most sheet flooring is vinyl sheet which I find far too high in offgassing.
Marmoleum, mentioned above, is one alternative type of resilient flooring that is healthy.
Recently though, there are a few other healthy additions to this category.
UPO by Kahrs makes three really great options. Xpression and Zero Tile are made of safer plastics – TPE and polyolefin (which in this case almost certainly means polyethylene and/or polypropylene). No plasticizers and no PVC.
Quartz tile, their stiffer flooring has a base of the mineral quartz and PVC, with no phthalates. It’s virtually odorless, even lower odor than LVP. Nothing like the usual vinyl rolls.
Another new healthy resilient flooring is Shaw Contract’s commercial bio-based polyurethane. It’s made of 90% natural oils (but not linseed) and minerals. It barely has an odor or any offgassing. The backing contains polyethylene and fiberglass and gives off only a very slight odor.
A similar bio-based polyurethane product is Wineo’s Purline Organic Floor which I have been really impressed with. It’s very similar to Shaw Contract with almost no offgassing. (They make a click-together version as well as sheet flooring).
You would have to check out the glues as well for each of the floors you are considering.
3. Light Green (Low-VOC)
i. Laminate Flooring
All laminate floors in North America are now low-VOC, but not all are the same.
My top pick is certainly the formaldehyde-free options, and next up would be GreenGuard Gold certified brands. (Most brands can easily meet the other certification levels, so those do not help to distinguish between brands.)
Formaldehyde-Free Laminate Floors
Laminate is made of High Density Fiberboard (HDF) and a printed image on top with a melamine coating. All of the brands I have seen, but one, use a formaldehyde-based adhesive in the HDF core.
Mohawk (including RevWood and Pergo) is the only company I have seen that doesn’t use formaldehyde, though they do not disclose the glue. They do disclose that it only offgasses 9 ng/m3 (0.009 μg/m3). (GreenGuard Gold allows a total VOC count of 220 μg/m3).
If you don’t go with Mohawk, then the floor will be made with formaldehyde and you want to go with GreenGuard Gold Certification ideally. I list all the Greenguard Gold brands here.
My Top Brands
- Mohawk – all Mohawk lines including RevWood and Pergo are formaldehyde-free.
- Swiss Krono (GreenGuard Gold)
- Duravana from LL Floors (GreenGuard Gold)
Some lines are “waterproof” – they either have an extra component of wax on the tongue and groove parts or a plastic like polystyrene added to the core. I did not find these to be higher in offgassing.
This type of flooring is usually “floating” – it doesn’t require adhesive during installation, which is a bonus.
My post on underlayment goes through the choices there.
Cork, like wood, has naturally occurring odorants. But with cork flooring, a resin (glue) is used to press and bind all the small pieces of cork together into flat sheets.
I have seen polyurethane glues used (which I find to have strong offgassing that persists), polyethylene, and formaldehyde binders. Polyvinyl acetate can also be added.
An adhesive is also required either to glue it down (and there are zero-VOC glues for this) or, in the floating floors it is usually glued to a fiberboard (HDF) substrate, which has its own offgassing (usually formaldehyde).
Cork is finished with urethanes, acrylic, or PET, which are generally not going to offgas once cured and are far less of a concern than the glues used to press the cork together.
I tried the WISE waterproof Amorim Cork flooring and I definitely think this is one of the healthiest brands out there.
I could pick up the offgassing slightly (it’s not zero-VOC in my opinion, but it’s close). Many sensitive folks have used this and liked it.
It’s cork through and through – and it’s the only click-together option that is made like this. Polyethylene is the main binder, but it also contains some formaldehyde and BPA. It looks like they have not re-submitted their Declare label for 2023 but you can see the old one here. It is GreenGuard Gold.
Forna has some cork tiles from Cancork/icorkfloor that claim to be 0-VOC and be made without formaldehyde. Some selections say they are low-VOC so be sure to check.
These are glue down tiles. The recommended glue is a 0-VOC water-based contact cement.
Most HDF is too high in formaldehyde offgassing for me. Though some brands like Amorim/Wickanders Cork GO claim to be made without formaldehyde or polyurethane glues even in the HDF core. And this brand is quite low odor.
I tested Cali Floors cork (when they had the type with cork on the top layer) which I found to be the best before Amorim Wise came along.
US Floors Cork is GreenGuard Gold certified.
Floors with some Cork
Some flooring that has a cork core and laminate on top can sometimes be referred to as cork flooring even though it has a laminate or plastic top.
Amorim Woodwise which has a PET plastic (not vinyl) engineered top layer falls into this category. I consider that topcoat very safe.
Related Post: Non-Toxic Gym Flooring
iii. Bamboo Flooring
Bamboo requires resin or adhesives to hold the strands together, most have a substrate and then a finish. There are many that are GreenGuard certified for low emissions.
This wood is known to be problematic in that it can shrink, expand and do poorly with water/moisture/spills.
It doesn’t do well in high humidity (warp) or very low humidity (crack).
Cali Floors GeoCore is made on a limestone-based core which I found quite impressive in how low VOC it was. The top layer is a thin layer of bamboo.
The other type that is very solid is the EcoFusion, which is not the typical engineered product – it is solid strand, which is 100% bamboo through and through.
Formaldehyde is a typical glue in bamboo flooring. If it doesn’t have formaldehyde it will have isocyanate-based glue (like MDI), or soy flour polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resin. The bamboo is also treated with borates.
The finish is usually a UV-cured urethane acrylate finish containing aluminum oxide. (Source: Pharos project)
iv. Magnetic Ceramic Tiles
I tested Kablan’s magnetic ceramic tiles. These are ceramic tiles with a magnetic backing.
The other side to the magnet is an underlayment that is glued down to the floor.
I found that the magnetic backing components are rubber and did have a moderately strong smell, though you may not be able to smell them once the floor is installed.
Since I tested them, they have made these tiles lighter in weight. You may have areas where you want tiles that you can pull up. It’s a cool idea, I quite liked them.
v. Luxury Vinyl Plank
There are three main types of vinyl flooring – vinyl that comes in a roll (that is way too high in offgassing for me), vinyl plank, and multilayer luxury vinyl plank.
Vinyl plank and luxury vinyl plank/tile are extremely low in VOCs and offgassing but they do have the problem of semi-VOCs – the plasticizers.
Most of it is phthalate-free now – though phthalates were replaced with alternate plasticizers. The most common plasticizer used now is bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DOTP).
A dedicated post on vinyl floors goes through how to pick the cleanest type of vinyl flooring and which brands I think are the best.
Multilayer LVP (Click-Together)
This type has a core (stone polymer composite – SPC, or wood polymer composite – WPC), vinyl top, and often an underlayment. It is click-together. The SPC core is a mix of PVC/vinyl, limestone and plasticizers. WPC cores can have real wood or plastic instead of limestone and have a foaming agent.
The vinyl floor post goes into more detail on what is in all the layers.
LVP (and LVT) brands are very similar, there are only five main differences outlined below:
Five Things to Look at When Choosing Safer LVP
- Double-check to make sure it’s virgin vinyl (not recycled vinyl)
- Look for phthalate-free
- I have a slight preference for SPC over WPC (usually slightly lower in offgassing)
- If you want 0-VOC go with the Proximity Mills 0-VOC lines
- Check the underlayment, you may choose to avoid cork (because it’s higher in offgassing)
- Mohawk Dodford 7.5″ Luxury Vinyl Planks
- ✓ Virgin vinyl ✓ Phthalate-free ✓ Thatcher and Franklin are SPC core ✓ Made in America
- Proximity Mills 0-VOC lines
- ✓ 0-VOC ✓ Phthalate-free ✓ SPC core
More brand options in the post on vinyl floors as well as a closer look into contaminants like metals.
This is the last option on this list due to the plasticizers which are long-lasting leaching chemicals as opposed to VOCs that will offgas shortly. The full health risks of these plasticizers are still unknown.
However, I would rank the following lower on the list (health-safety-wise) than vinyl plank: vinyl sheet, rubber floors, most flooring with an MDF core, many cork brands, and many conventional carpets.
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Cost Comparison of Green Flooring 2021 (USD)
- Wood $8 – 10 / sq ft including installation
- Polished concrete is $8 – 15 / sq ft for residential
- Stain and sealed concrete – materials $1 / sq ft (unless you are pouring the concrete or have lots of prep)
- Tiles are usually $8 – 10 / sq ft but it depends on the tiles (tiles come in a wide range of costs) and prep of subfloor/installation difficulty
- Marble floor material costs are $10 – $20 / sq ft (specialty marbles can go up to $40 per square foot). Labor is an additional $3 to $7 / sq ft
- Engineered Wood – Materials $3 – 12 / sq ft, labor $3 – 10 / sq ft
- Marmoleum – Materials $4.50 – 5 / sq ft, labour $1 – 4 / sq ft
- Wool Carpet J Mish $4 – $8, Earthweave $6, Nature’s Carpet $7 / sq ft
- Cali Floors – under $3.30 – 5 / sq ft, labour about $3 – 4 / sq ft for click
Home Depot brands $1 – 3 / sq ft
- Cali Floors – under $3.30 – 5 / sq ft, labour about $3 – 4 / sq ft for click
- Home Decorators Collection $1.30 – 2 / sq ft, labour $3 – 4 / sq ft
Trafic Master $0.50 – 2 / sq ft
Pergo $2 – 3 / sq ft
- Home Decorators Collection $1.30 – 2 / sq ft, labour $3 – 4 / sq ft
- Cork $8 – 10 / sq ft including installation
Corinne Segura is a Building Biologist with 8 years of experience helping others create healthy homes.
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