This Post will Look at Healthy Non-Toxic Pipe Options: PEX, Copper, PP, ABS
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Do Polyethylene (PE or PEX) Pipes Leach Chemicals?
Polyethylene (PEX) is becoming a more popular option. It will leach small amounts of VOCs for some years. Different brands cause different odors and leach different chemicals – this has not been thoroughly researched yet.
The usual fittings are brass contain some lead, plastic PPSU fittings are preferred. Errors in the fitting install can lead to leaks.
When running lines to a tiny house use PEX instead of a garden hose or RV hose (but it cannot take UV exposure, so it has to be encapsulated). RV hoses are made of PVC.
PEX might not allowed by all local building codes, but it is the dominant plumbing system right now in North America.
PEX Used in Radiant Floors
PEX tubing is also the tubing of choice for radiant floor heating. Radiant Floors are a great heating option, as ducts can pose problems for those sensitive to mold and dust. I prefer electric underfloor heating as I have seen PEX floor heating spring a leak.
With PEX make sure to select the right diameter for your application.
Are Copper Pipes Healthy and Safe?
Copper can be considered for those extremely sensitive to plastics. However, there are also health risks associated with it. I personally am more concerned with metals in my drinking water than chemicals, as metal is a more problematic underlying toxin.
Copper can be filtered from drinking water with a reverse osmosis system.
For people very concerned about mold, they sometimes run their water lines inside the house. In this case, you would use copper for aesthetic reasons.
Copper is more expensive than PEX (on materials and install), and more prone to bursting if it freezes. It also can have pinhole leaks.
Pipe solder is made from tin-antimony or tin-silver in the US. But if a less developed or regulated part of the world, make sure that it is lead-free.
Most of the fittings are copper but some are brass which contain lead. Even “lead-free” allows for a small amount of lead. It is in theory possible to have 100% lead-free brass fittings but I have not seen any for copper yet.
Type L is thicker (made for underground, basements where there could be abrasion or corrosion) than type M.
Polypropylene Pipes as an Alternative to Copper and PEX
Polypropylene pipes are not as common as the other types, it is harder to find a plumber and you do need to check with what your codes allow.
But PP pipes should have less leaching than PEX according to the EWG. They also avoid toxic glues at the joints since they are sealed with heat. Although it’s promoted by EWG it’s not yet widely used or accessible for many people. 3. PVC and ABS
Are PVC or ABS Pipes Safe? (Outgoing Pipes)
Either one can be used on outgoing drain pipes. Your codes may require one or the other. Those severely sensitive may prefer ABS plastic.
Make sure that when glue is used at junctures in the pipes it is done outdoors or while the house can be totally aired out. Make sure your contractors are aware of the toxicity of the glue and to be extra careful with spills and clean-up. The glues cure very quickly, however. So they should be tolerable very soon.
Where plumbing meets the wall, it should be sealed with non-toxic caulking.
CPVC used to be one of the three main plumbing types for incoming water lines (along with PEX and copper), but it’s more uncommon now. It becomes brittle and prone to breakage with time. Folks have moved away from PVC for incoming water. If you have this in your house take caution in areas where it can be bumped as it can break.
Corinne Segura is a Building Biologist with 6 years of experience helping others create healthy homes.
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