Flame Retardants in the Home
Many household items in North America contain flame retardants (FRs).
Historically, one of the biggest contributors of flame retardant in the home has been polyurethane foam.
There have been major changes lately towards removing flame retardants from polyurethane.
Many mattresses and most sofas are made with polyurethane foam. Pillows, including nursing pillows, car seats, and child safety seats, carpet padding, and foam insulation are sources of foam.
Non-foam sources of FR in the home include curtains, electronics, and toys.
Outside the home, cars and camping gear are sources that we will also go over in this post.
Flame retardants are found in dust form in the household, and the main route of exposure from household items is dust to hand to mouth, though you also inhale them and ingest them.
They are not gasses (VOCs), they are semi-volatile.
I recommend all of the products here, some products have affiliate programs and some do not. Upon purchase, I earn a small commission through affiliate links at no extra cost to you.
The 5 Most Important Things to do Right now to Reduce Exposure to Flame Retardants
- Use a HEPA vacuum to clean your house, including upholstery. Use other cleaning methods in the section on cleaning, including using wet wiping and washing hands before eating. This alone will cut exposure in half! (source)
- Throw out conventional upholstery with FR that is ripped and has exposed foam – this includes sofas, beds, car seats, child car seats, and pillows. Don’t try and save them!
- Get rid of foam items made before 2015, replace them with FR-free versions. I have posts on choosing FR-free, non-toxic mattresses and sofas.
- Your mattress should be the priority to replace no matter the age, if it has FR, due to the time spent in bed and proximity to the foam. If you can’t replace your mattress, encase it with this cover to reduce FRs from migrating out.
- Get rid of electronics made before 2008, replace with brands that have eliminated the most toxic FRs.
If you do not read further than this those five steps will have made a huge difference!
Flame Retardants That are Toxic
Here are the main toxic flame retardants found in the home that we are trying to avoid.
Some items contain replacement FRs, that may be less toxic, or we may not know their toxicity profile yet.
Some of the FRs that can claim to be non-toxic are boric acid, newer chemicals that we don’t have as much data on, aluminum-based FR which I am very concerned about, silver, Kevlar and nanoparticles.
Some FR are more embedded/bonded to the material and are more stable, and others drift out more easily or are topical treatments.
Flame retardants don’t finish coming out or “offgass” out of items like foam. They are a major component of the product and continue to leach out for the life of the product.
Flame Retardant Exposure By Source
Now that California has changed its policy requiring flame retardants in furniture, it is a whole lot easier to find beds and furniture without these toxic chemicals.
Even better, California law requires a label indicating whether there are chemical flame retardants or not in the furniture. These new laws took effect in January 2015.
Look for TB117-2013 which means no flame retardant. TB117 likely means it contains FR, but not for sure.
What if you have older furniture containing more toxic forms of flame retardants like PBDE?
Mercola says, “be especially careful with polyurethane foam products manufactured prior to 2005, as these are most likely to contain PBDEs. If you have any of these in your home, inspect them carefully and replace ripped covers and/or any foam that appears to be breaking down.
Also, avoid reupholstering furniture by yourself as the reupholstering process increases your risk of exposure” (source)
Flame Retardant-Free Couches
Between 2005 -2015, the main flame retardant changed to Tris which is also toxic.
A lot of the big companies got rid of all flame retardants in their couches manufactured after January 2015.
Many of the big companies are now free of chemical flame retardants, including Room and Board, IKEA, Crate and Barrel, West Elm and Pottery Barn, and many others.
IKEA uses a barrier liner, which is not made with chemical flame retardants.
Keep in mind that these companies still use foams, glues, fabric finishes and possibly particle boards that all offgas VOCs. I review and compare companies making green couches in this dedicated post.
My top pick will depend on a person’s needs, sensitivities and budget, so do check out the whole list, but usually, my go-to pick will be Medley.
They are affordable, you can choose between natural latex and polyurethane. They are FR-free. I was happy with all the glues, fabrics, and wood used in them. The code MyChemFreeHouse5 will get you 5% off.
A Common Question: Does IKEA use Flame Retardants?
This used to be a question that would result in a lot of run-around from the company. Now IKEA furniture (upholstered and mattresses) made after January 2015 and sold in the US and Canada does not contain flame retardants in the bedding and sofas. The stitch bond and zippers do contain chemical flame retardants, though I consider that to be very minor.
Flame Retardants in Mattresses
Which Mattress Companies are Flame Retardant Free?
With mattresses, many big companies are also moving away from added flame retardants – companies like Sealy, Tuft and Needle, Casper, and IKEA. Serta may use boric acid, but not the more toxic chemicals. Sealy uses a silica and rayon layer.
Safety of IKEA Mattresses
IKEA’s MAUSUND (previously named Morongava or Sultan) is made of 85% natural latex with no polyurethane or flame retardant.
It is a fairly safe mattress, with very low offgassing. There is 15% synthetic latex. This will have a rubber-like odor.
I also consider polyurethane foam to be relatively non-toxic. It does offgas VOCs, but I prefer something that has a short limited offgassing time, to something like natural latex that I have had long-term problems with.
And now that IKEA and major manufactures have removed flame retardants, buying some furniture with polyurethane foam has become a very reasonable option for many people.
Personally, I consider IKEA’s polyurethane-based mattresses to be relatively safe – the safest inexpensive mattress out there. Their spring mattresses don’t contain very much foam – the springs really cut that down to a small amount.
I have a warning in my mattresses post about natural latex and mold.
Truly All-Natural Options
See my post on mattresses to source and compare all-natural versions that do not contain synthetic materials like polyurethane or offgas harmful chemicals (you have to consider the fabrics, fabric treatment and glues as well as foams).
My Green Mattress can match IKEA’s natural latex mattress price point, without the natural latex risk, or synthetic latex.
My top pick will always be Naturepedic, this is a favorite among those who are sensitive due to their organic and low odor materials.
Flame Retardants in Carpet
There are many companies making organic or natural fiber carpets, such as wool.
Non-toxic FR-free carpet is covered in the post on flooring.
For rugs, some good options include cotton, rattan, or jute.
In my rug post, I go over the companies that are committed to making area rugs without toxins.
Conventional carpets from big box stores contain a long list of chemicals including flame retardants. Many big box stores now carry carpet brands with the Green Label + certification which is not a low enough level for sensitive folks.
Always ask about FRs, since these are not considered VOCs, and may be found in the rug padding foam. Alumina trihydrate is commonly used as the flame retardant in carpet tiles.
Be careful when removing old carpet as the FRs can become scattered as dust. Do not do this yourself if you are sensitive. Removing old carpet should usually be done under containment.
Flame Retardants in other Polyurethane Items
Car seats are unfortunately an unavoidable source of flame retardant. To reduce exposure, use a HEPA vacuum as described in the section on cleaning to vacuum the seats. Ideally, change clothing when you get home.
Leather seats might be preferable, depending on if the leather itself was treated. Leather, in theory, should reduce the migration of FR out from the foam.
Child Car Seats
Child car seats often contain FR, but you can buy specialty ones without added chemicals. The UPPAbaby car seat is my top pick with no flame retardants and no chemical treatments on the fabric.
Companies haven’t made it very clear whether their outdoor furniture that contains foam is treated with flame retardants.
There are two companies Ethan Allen and IKEA that have made statements that none of their upholstered furniture contains chemical flame retardants.
Get the Foam Tested
If you are not sure if your polyurethane item contains FR, ask the company, check the date and labels. You can also send a sample of foam to Duke University for free testing if you have access to the foam inside.
Some companies do provide samples of their foam. If you have a tear in the item this would be another opportunity to send it in for testing.
Flame Retardants in Fabrics
Do Curtains Contain Flame Retardants?
It’s hard to know which curtains contain flame retardants (FRs) as they will not be labeled.
Cloth curtains and blinds are likely to contain flame retardants (Source: Arlene Blum, chemist).
I would assume that cloth curtains from hardware stores and conventional stores do contain flame retardants (as well as possibly a formaldehyde finish).
GOTS-certified fabrics and curtains from green companies are safer.
I have a post on window coverings with chemical-free options for all types of window coverings.
Does Clothing, like Children’s Pajamas Contain Flame Retardant?
Children’s pajamas used to contain toxic FRs, but now it is very rare that they do.
If you want to wash out the FRs from curtains and other cloth items see the section on cleaning below.
Flame Retardants in Insulation
Rigid Foam Insulation
HBCD (brominated flame retardant) is typically used in polystyrene rigid foam insulation including EPS (expanded polystyrene) and XPS (extruded polystyrene).
TCPP (tris) is typically used in polyisocyanurate foams (source).
There is no EPS or XPS insulation without flame retardants on the market currently in North America (source).
Sweden does produce foam insulation without flame retardant. (source)
GAF polyiso EnergyGuard-NH uses a halogen-free flame retardant, not TCPP (tris), which is safer.
XPS (extruded polystyrene) is the most commonly used insulation under slabs/foundations. EPS is used sometimes. The flame retardants won’t come up through the vapor barrier and concrete but in theory, they do eventually leach down into the soil (source).
Spray Foam Insulation
Almost all spray foams made in the US contain flame retardants, usually TCPP (tris) (source).
I list healthy and natural insulation options in my post on Insulation.
Flame Retardants in Electronics
PBDEs (brominated flame retardants) were phased out of electronics in the US and Europe in 2013.
It does seem that these chemicals leach from electronics (source).
TCPBA and TBBPA are often used on the circuit boards as well as the plastic external casings. There are a dozen different FRs that might be present in electronics (source).
Organohalgens (halogenated flame retardants) became the biggest concern after PBDE was banned. They have mostly been phased out of electronics and were replaced with phosphate FRs and other newer chemicals, often aluminum-based, which I don’t consider safe (source).
In 2017 TVs were tested. Best Buy brand Insignia. was not testing positive for the most harmful flame retardants, though we still (2019) don’t know which one they are using. All other TVs tested positive. Two contained banned FRs (PBDE)!
Computers and phones with aluminum cases (like Apple laptops) and phones with real glass components can be assumed to not contained FRs on those parts. This would greatly reduce exposure.
Flame Retardants in Camping Equipment
Most tents, sleeping mats and sleeping bags contain flame retardants. I go through the brands that explicitly do not use any flame retardants in my post on camping equipment.
How to Clean up Flame Retardants in the Home
1. Get a HEPA Vacuum
Flame retardants become mobile in dust as opposed to in gas. So keeping a dust-free home is of utmost importance. David Suzuki says household dust is one of the most significant sources of childhood exposure to toxic substances.
On top of flame retardants, dust contains phthalates, metals, like lead, mercury, and arsenic, and pesticides.
A HEPA vacuum is necessary to clean up these toxins and is one of the biggest improvements to air quality in the home that you can do right now.
The Nilfisk brand is recommended by the experts and is affordable. This is my first choice for most situations.
A more DIY option where you can get a lot of bang for you buck is to add a HEPA filter to a Shop-Vac. (HEPA filter bags are also needed to catch all the fine dust). Shop vacs are louder than the other options here.
Another great high-quality brand is Miele HEPA.
If you have a more serious contaminate like lead, go for a certified HEPA model like Festool which is more foolproof in its filtration system.
2. Wet Wipe, Don’t Sweep!
Vacuuming is more effective than other forms of cleaning.
You should use an attachment to vacuum upholstered furniture and mattresses as well. Don’t forget about your car seats!
Sweeping is not a good idea to clean up contaminates found in household dust. But wet wiping with wet clothes (that don’t contain FRs or harmful plastics) is the next best method.
Wet wipe the dashboard of your vehicle as well.
If you need to dry wipe something sensitive that can’t get wet, use materials that capture dust like microfiber cloths and dry Swiffers.
3. Using Air Filters
The best way to remove particulates from the air, including dust and flame retardants, is a HEPA air filter.
If you don’t need to filter for VOCs, you only need a simple HEPA filter with a high enough CFM (fan size) to move enough air in a room to make a dent in the dust.
I use the Vornado which has true HEPA, a good CFM and is very well priced. It has some carbon and a PCO element. It is the best value I have seen for an air purifier with these three technologies.
I have a post with more details about the Vornado and what CFM means in terms of airflow here.
Other basic air filters can be used like the Honeywell and GermGuardian. Make sure it’s true HEPA, has a decent CFM (ability to move air through it), and is not too loud. Some Honeywells are known for being loud.
One other point of comparison is the cost of replacement filters.
If you want to pair HEPA with a VOC filter to help with offgassing, you will be looking at more expensive brands. I compare my top picks for absorbing VOCs in this post.
4. Can you Wash Flame Retardants out of Fabric?
Fabric Softener is often mentioned as being able to remove flame retardant due to the warning against using it on treated fabrics. However, it does not actually remove the FR chemicals, it only coats the fabric.
Once the fabric is washed in regular detergent it retains its FR properties. Using soap (as opposed to detergent) also coats the fabric.
The soap and fabric softener coating can be flammable, and that appears to be the reason why it’s not recommenced on treated clothing.
There are different types of FR added, some are bonded into the fabric and some are treatments added. There is more than one chemical FR that is added topically to fabrics including tents, and there may be different strategies to remove them.
Folks are trying hot water, soaking, acidic soaks like vinegar, and enzyme cleaners. I am gathering more evidence for the effectiveness of these strategies.
Chlorinated organophosphate are the most common flame retardants ones found in laundry wastewater but older generation FRs like PBDE were found as well. These are not coming from treated clothing, but from dust in the house from furniture and electronics and other household items.
Corinne Segura is a Building Biologist with 8 years of experience helping others create healthy homes.
Did you find this post helpful? If so you can buy me a coffee to support the research behind this blog. Thank you!
Hi! Thank you for this incredibly helpful article. I see that you overall seem to think IKEA mattresses are pretty safe given the cost, but was wondering if you could help me out on a conundrum. Reading from one of the press releases, it says “In US: Mattresses/mattresses sets have a fibre fire barrier made of rayon/polyester batting with an inherently fire-resistant property. Flame retardant chemicals (non-halogenated phosphorous-based inorganic salts) are only used for some stitch bonds, piping and zippers on spring mattresses in the US.” I know you said above that spring mattresses are preferable because there is less foam. But given the spring mattresses contain FR, would you go with a foam one? Trying to decide on an extendable mattress for my daughter and I’m stuck between the two. Thank you!
that seems odd that it would only be spring mattresses that have FR on zippers/ticking. They have all foam mattresses with zippers and ticking as well. I wonder if that’s a error in the print.
Ashley Jovanovski says
I’m not sure! I tried chatting with an Ikea rep on their website and they seemed to verify it, but only after I prompted them with what I had read. Here is where I was looking https://www.ikea.com/us/en/files/pdf/5c/df/5cdf003d/ikea_faq_flame_retardants.pdf . They do seem to use non-halogenated FR (which my prelim research says is not toxic?) so maybe I will just stick with the spring one we already had delivered rather than swapping it out for foam. Thank you for your reply!
Hi, I recently learned about toxic mattresses, would it be better if I just get a 5-year old mattress but in good condition? Mattresses that old, may have no more off-gassing and dissipitated FR? Hope to hear from you.
FR doesn’t dissipate, it’s not a gas, it’s a part of the foam that can make up 30% of the foam. It will continue to leach out for the life of the product and get worse as the foam breaks down.
Thank you so much for all your amazing articles and research.
Just wondering if fire retardants are in our clothes? I’ve been trying to research this and I’m getting mixed answers. I read one article that said materials are treated prior to being made into garments and that’s how they get away with not telling us and that all clothes are treated unless natural / organic? Thanks 🙂
No fire retardants are not in most clothing. Only specialized clothing for some industries, it will be labeled.
What about furniture without foam? Were flame retardants commonly added to furniture made with springs, cotton or polyester batting, and down cushions?
Thanks for doing all this research. Your website is a wonderful resource!
Roger Paulson says
Please visit my website. organicseating.co.uk
Hi Carrie, We moved into my grandfathers house a couple of years ago it has been kept immaculatly clean but has carpeting throughout. We are saving for hardwood but after I read this article I am beyond stressed because we have small children. I vacuum regularly with a HEPA vac but I am not sure if living on them is hurting my children. Do the flame retardants wear off over time or get worse. Thank you in advance.
Sorry Corrine auto correct changed your name to Carrie.
If there are flame retardants in the carpet pad it gets worse over time.
I bought a 1970’s curtain to make a dress. Once I started sewing and ironing the seams as I went, I noticed a familiar smell from childhood (I’m in my 4o’s). I realized it was probably treated with something and a google search turned up drapes were treated with FR’s in the 70’s as well. Do you think repeatedly washing/soaking it would get rid of the treatment? It’s such a pretty dress but I’m afraid to wear it and of course, the smell is not tolerable.
There isn’t any data on washing out flame retardants. I’ve looked high and low.
Laura McGovern says
I hope you are well. Thank you for writing such an informative article. I recently purchased an adjustable bed mechanism and mattresses (x 2 singles that make up a super king) to go into my existing bed. However, on arrival I discovered it was sprayed with fire retardant just prior to being delivered. It has been 5 days and I still get a headache and feel nauseous from even spending 5 minutes in the room, so I’ve been sleeping in the spare bedroom. I have contacted the company and asked her how to remove the flame retardant, but I do not hold out much hope. Seeing as the mechanism and the accompanying mattresses cost me a huge amount of money and so I cannot afford to replace the mattresses, do you have any other ideas for reducing the toxic dust? Should I buy a Hepa filter hover and hover the bed or can I have the bed professionally cleaned? I do not think I will be able to purchase the fitted bed sheet to prevent the fumes as I have x 2 long (190 cm) single mattresses that make up my super king bed and I do not think it would fit. I would really appreciate your advice.
Flame retardants are mixed into the foam, I have not heard of spraying a mattress before delivery, what brand is that? I would encase it.
Hi Corinne, thank you for this informative post!
Do you think the Ikea Haugesund spring mattress is safe long term? https://www.ikea.com/us/en/p/haugesund-spring-mattress-medium-firm-dark-beige-80307416/
It seems to have more polyurethane foam than their thin spring mattress. Do you think after a few days most of the offgasing would be done?
A lot more than a few days to fully offgas any polyurethane. But safe is relative. I like IKEA for polyurethane and adding springs reduces the foam.
Lisa Wood says
Thanks so much for this very important information! My cat was just diagnosed as hyperthyroid and I’ve been investigating possible causes and flame retardants play a big role in this. I’m looking all over the Internet for organic safe cat beds.… Very hard to find! I think so many people do not realize that their pets are exposed to fire retardants in just pet products alone. I’ve looked at several companies that do sell chemical free pet beds, but not a great selection. Any recommendations?
Hi Lisa- I have recently had the same problem with my cat. I went on Etsy and bought organic hemp and linen beds and couches and they weren’t that expensive. They also make organic hemp cat beds. Most of the sellers are from the Ukraine and hand sew everything to order
Hi , we are looking at a couch right now from IKEA. I got home and wanted to make sure of the materials before purchasing it. Now the materials and ingredients read this:
Particleboard, Plywood, Fiberboard, Solid wood, Polyurethane foam 1.5 lb/cu.ft., Polyester wadding, Polyurethane foam 2.0 lb/cu.ft.
Polyurethane foam 2.0 lb/cu.ft., High-resilience polyurethane foam (cold foam) 2.2 lb/cu.ft., Felt liner, Polyester fiber balls
Back cushion/ Lumbar cushion:
Polyester fiber balls
Metal parts/ Pocket spring unit:
Solid beech, Stain, Clear lacquer
Smolder resistant lining:
So I called about the “smolder resistant lining” and she said yes it is a flame retardant. I’m so confused and was frustrated after seeing the materials and talking to a customer service rep. I have heard IKEA was getting rid of all that so I am confused now.
IKEAs liners are not made with chemical flame retardants but the are just in the general sense of the word retarding fire. Most of the new liners are attempts to pass safety requirements without added chemicals. Though it’s possible that some companies are using a treated liner. Here is IKEAs statement on the liners https://www.ikea.com/ms/en_JP/pdf/reports-downloads/product_safety/IKEA_FAQ_flame_retardants.pdf
Hi, if i go for a jute or seagrass rug does it explicitly have to state being made from all natural materials too.. or does this only really go for convential rugs? Thank you for all the great info!
Those are usually all natural, you can ask them if they add any treatments to the jute or seagrass.
What about stuff made in Canada that doesn't specify?
I am looking for a carpet pad that is flame retardant free. Any options? Thank you!
I am looking for a carpet pad that is flame retardant free. Any options? Thank you!
Also, do you think synthetic latex falls into the "lesser of evils category?" As an aside, I would love to see a list showing a scale from good to bad materials toxicity-wise. e.g. what's worse, polyurethane or synthetic latex? Have anything like that?
Hi Sarad, It gets a little complex to go through all the options. I will add something to the post on mattresses. Otherwise you can email me if you want to go through the options that might be best for you personally.
Rachel Malk says
I'm looking for a less toxic mattress. How do you feel about an innerspring IKEA mattress? It is understanding that it now doesn't have FR. What about other chemicals added? I was planning on buying an innerspring and adding a natural latex topper. Thank you!
I did add the info to the beginning of the post here https://www.mychemicalfreehouse.net/2013/02/furniture-and-matresses.html
Holy cow, thanks! Yes, I did see your post about natural latex; what an odd issue. I'm also curious about the other "natural materials" mattress IKEA has. Via their mattress finder on the main mattress webpage, if you choose "natural materials" it lists only MORGONGÅVA. If you look at their 2017 buying guide, it also shows their MYRBACKA (which for all I know could mean they use cotton thread), which includes memory foam.
I don't see anything about the MYRBACKA that is natural/green.
This is all SO helpful, thank you for taking the time to research and share it. Have you followed the new line of IKEA mattresses? The Heggedal is not available anymore. Do you know what's it new equivalent is? What's the most non-toxic (i.e. the lesser of evils) of what they offer now? Many thanks.
Thanks for the update! I'll look into it.
They changed the name to MORGONGÅVA – I need to email them to confirm no FRs and find out what is in the limited warranty. I don't recommend natural latex anymore, see my warning in the post about bedding. Perhaps adding synthetic latex to it helps, I'm not sure.
Joe Blow says
What is the source of this claim that IKEA has removed FRs from its couches and mattresses? There appears to be no official news release or website info directly from IKEA itself. This leads me to believe it it simply hearsay.
Do you have an official IKEA statement on the matter? I cannot find one.
Yes, I did research this carefully. I did have a statement but I'd have to do some backtracking to find it now.
Try emailing them.
Thank you so much for making this post! I'm researching ALL of this stuff – which I'm sure you understand how confusing that can be! Your post is a huge help. 🙂
It's my understanding that Ikea has removed all flame retardants from their furniture as of January 2015, a result of changes to California's TB-117 flammability requirements. Have you investigated whether this is the case?
Hi, yes this is the case. All their furniture manufactured after that date. I have updated the post.
Stevie R says
Does this mean that the Polyurethane foam used in the couches also doesn't have flame retardants?